A Bio-Individual List of Histamine Inhibitors
This blog post outlines a list of bio-individual histamine inhibitors. It is a companion post for my previous post on the bio-individual triggers of histamine intolerance.
Histamines are a natural chemical in plants, animals, and humans. The body needs histamines to perform critical functions.
The body was designed to be in a state of homeostasis so that the supply of histamine meets the body’s metabolic needs.
Excessive amounts of histamine are normally de-activated by diamine oxidase (DAO), histamine methyl transferase (HNMT), and monoamine oxidase (MAO).
Where the amount of histamines, exceeds the ability of DAO, HNMT, and MAO to degrade the excess, a toxic level of histamine enters circulation, and causes metabolic chaos™.
1. DIAMINE OXIDASE (DAO)
A November 2015 study found that DAO deficiency remains the leading cause of histamine intolerance. 70% of all persons who responded to a low histamine diet had DAO deficiency.
DAO is a key enzyme, concentrated in the small intestine, and involved in the break-down of ingested and bacterial histamine.
DAO deficiency can be genetic or acquired. Key factors which affect DAO function are:
– DAO genetic inheritance
– DAO inhibiting medications (including long term NSAID use)
– DAO inhibiting alcohol consumption
– DAO inhibiting estrogen (to progesterone) imbalances
– DAO inhibiting gastro-intestinal diseases (including irritable bowel syndrome, crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis)
– Bacterial imbalances; as bacteria regulates histamine synthesis
– Nutrient deficiencies: Vitamin b6, vitamin c, zinc and copper, are needed to make DAO.
A lab test for DAO deficiency, immediately before, and after a 14 day low histamine diet, is used to diagnose DAO deficiency.
2. HISTAMINE METHYL TRANSFERASE (HNMT)
HNMT is a key enzyme concentrated in the liver which is responsible for degrading histamines generated as a result of the functions of the body and in particular mast-cells.
HNMT deficiency can be genetic or acquired. Key factors which affect HNMT function are:
– DAO Deficiency
– Bacterial imbalances (as only around 50% is degraded by DAO)
– HNMT genetic inheritance
– HNMT inhibiting medications
– Mast cell degranulating estrogen (to progesterone) imbalances
– Mast cell degranulating foods
– Mast cell activation disease
– Impaired HPA axis
– Impaired methylation and/or liver function.
A 24-hour methyl histamine lab test is used to determine HNMT function.
3. MONOAMINE OXIDASE (MAO)
MAO is a key enzyme concentrated in the brai n which is responsible for degrading histamine and modulating other neurotransmitters; including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.
MAO deficiency can be genetic or acquired. Key factors which affect MAO function are:
– MAO genetic inheritance
– MAO inhibiting medications (and illicit drugs)
– MAO inhibiting tyramine foods
– MAO inhibiting smoking (inhibits up to 30%)
– MAO inhibiting estrogen (to progesterone) imbalances
– Nutritional deficiencies; particularly Vitamin B2 and iron.
23andMe™ can determine the probability of MOA enzyme mutations. An organic urine amino acid test may also be relevant to determine the actual level of neurotransmitters.
The health status of the individual plays the greatest influence on the function of DAO, HNMT, and MAO and accounts for the significant differences in histamine tolerance.